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What is Pressure Die Casting?

What is Pressure Die Casting?


Custom pressure die casting is a quick, reliable and cost-effective manufacturing process for production of high volume, metal components that are net-shaped have tight tolerances.Low pressure casting is a newer special casting process.Because the aluminum liquid in the cavity is cooling under a certain pressure,so the density of product is higher.At the same time,its effect of filling mold is better than gravity casting,low pressure die casting can produce most complex and thin-walled castings. We can use cooling system to cool the mold accurately to promote sequential cooling of molds.It can get qualified and beautiful product.Another feature of low pressure casting process is the high automation,the production efficiency is stable.It also has good product repeatability,the product qualified rate can be up to over 95%.

Types of Pressure Die Casting

High Pressure Die Casting & Low Pressure Die Casting

Depending upon the pressure used, there are two types of pressure die casting namely High Pressure Die Casting and Low Pressure Die Casting. While high pressure die casting has wider application encompassing nearly 50% of all light alloy casting production. Currently low pressure die casting accounts for about 20% of the total production but its use is increasing. High pressure castings are must for castings requiring tight tolerance and detailed geometry. As the extra pressure is able to push the metal into more detailed features in the mold. Custom aluminium low pressure die casting is commonly used for larger and non-critical parts.

However, the machine and its dies are very costly, and for this reason pressure die casting is viable only for high-volume production.

High Pressure Die Casting

Here, the liquid metal is injected with high speed and high pressure into the metal mold. The basic equipment consists of two vertical platens. The bolsters are placed on these platens and this holds the die halves. Out of the two platens, one is fixed and the other movable.

This helps the die to open and close. A specific amount of metal is poured into the shot sleeve and afterwards introduced into the mold cavity. This is done using a hydraulically-driven piston. After the metal has solidified, the die is opened and the casting eventually removed.

Low Pressure Die Casting

High quality castings, of aluminium alloys, along with magnesium and other low melting point alloys are usually produced through this process. Castings of aluminium in the weight range of 2-150 kg are a common feature.

The process works like this, first a metal die is positioned above a sealed heat treatment furnace design containing molten metal. A refractory-lined riser extends from the bottom of the die into the molten metal. Low pressure air (15 - 100 kPa, 2- 15 psi) is then introduced into the furnace. This makes the molten metal rise up the tube and enter the die cavity with low turbulence. After the metal has solidified, the air pressure is released . This makes the metal still in the molten state in the riser tube to fall back into the furnace. After subsequent cooling, the die is opened and the casting extracted.

With correct die design it is possible to eliminate the need of the riser also. This is because of the directional freezing of the casting. After the sequence has been established, the process can be controlled automatically using temperature and pressure controllers to oversee the operation of more than one diecasting machine supplier.

Advantages of Pressure Die Casting :

Lower costs compared to other processes.

Economical - typically production of any number of components from thousands to millions before requiring replacement is possible.

Castings with close dimensional control and good surface finish

Castings with thin walls, and therefore are lighter in weight

Application of Pressure Die Casting

Automotive parts like wheels, blocks, cylinder heads, manifolds etc.

Aerospace castings.

Electric motor housings.

Kitchen ware such as pressure cooker.

Cabinets for the electronics industry.

General hardware appliances, pump parts, plumbing parts.

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